Hypoglycemia is when glucose (blood sugar) levels decrease below the normal level. It is most commonly associated with diabetes and treatment of diabetes.
Other than diabetes, a variety of other conditions may cause hypoglycemia, including liver disease and associated conditions, starvation, anorexia nervosa, overproduction of insulin caused by a pancreatic tumor, hormone deficiencies and side effects of certain medication, for example, quinine.
Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, headaches, hunger, shaking, fatigue, heart palpitations, anxiety, irritability, speech problems, and clumsiness. Extreme hypoglycemia may lead to confusion, visual disturbances, seizures and loss of consciousness.
Treatment of hypoglycemia involves medication, treatment of any underlying conditions, and careful management of glucose levels, often using a continuous glucose monitor or finger-prick blood test. Dietary changes may also help maintain normal glucose levels. Drug classes commonly prescribed to treat hypoglycemia are thiazide diuretics.