Glaucoma is a term for a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, resulting in high pressure in the eye and loss of vision. Examples include open-angle, angle-closure, congenital, and secondary glaucomas. Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in the United States and can occur at any age, although it is more common in older adults.
Symptoms of glaucoma depend on the stage and type of the condition. Signs of acute angle-closure glaucoma include severe headaches, blurred vision, a glow around lights, red eyes, and eye pain. Open-angle glaucoma is characterized by patchy blind spots in the peripheral vision, and, in the advanced stages, tunnel vision.
Risk factors for glaucoma include a family history of the condition; being over 60 years of age; an eye injury or surgery in the eye; certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes; and certain medication, such as ophthalmological corticosteroids.
Treatment options for glaucoma include surgery, eye drops, and medication. Drug classes commonly prescribed to treat glaucoma include other miotics-antiglaucoma preparations, plain, beta-blockers, ophthalmic, plain, beta-blockers, ophthalmic, combination, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, ophthalmic, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and other cytotoxic antibiotics.